There are two main fluid compartments in the body. About two-third is in the intracellular fluid compartment (ICF). The intracellular fluid is the fluid within the cells of the body. The remaining one-third of body water is outside cells, in the extracellular fluid compartment.

The intracellular fluid of the cytosol or intracellular fluid (or cytoplasmic matrix) is the liquid found inside cells. The cytosol is a complex mixture of substances that include proteins, ions, and organelles dissolved in water. Extracellular fluid (ECF) or extracellular fluid volume (ECFV) usually denotes all body fluid outside of cells, and consists of plasma, interstitial, and transcellular fluid. An extracellular matrix is an extracellular fluid space containing cell-excreted molecules, and they vary in their type and function.

Paulina Feb 10 · Rate: 5 · Comments: 4 · Tags: fluid compartments, intracellular fluid, cytosol
Piyush Chaudhary

Everybody has some idea about the meaning of the term politics; to some people the question may even appear quite superfluous. ‘Politics’ is what one reads about in the papers or watches on television. It deals with the activities of the politicians, notably the leaders of political parties. What is politics all about? Why, precisely, are these activities ‘political’ and what defines the nature of politics? If one starts with a definition couched in terms of the activities of politicians, one might say that politics concerns the rivalries of politicians in their struggle for power. This would certainly be the kind of definition with which most people would agree. There would, also, probably be agreement that politics refers to the relationship between states on an international scale.

‘Politics is about power and how it is distributed.’ But power is not an abstract entity floating in the void. It is embodied in human beings. Power is a relationship existing wherever a person can impose his will on other persons, making the latter obey whether they want to or not. Hence, arises a situation characterised by leadership, a relation of domination and subordination. Max Weber, in his famous lecture of 1918, ‘Politics as a Vocation’, started by proposing that the concept of politics was ‘extremely broad-based and comprises any kind of independent leadership in action.’ In whatever context such leadership in action exists, politics is present. In our terms, political would include any situation where power relations existed, i.e. where people were constrained or dominated or subject to authority of one kind or another. It would also include situations where people were constrained by a set of structures or institutions rather than by the subjective will of persons.

Such a broad definition has the advantage of showing that politics is not necessarily a matter of government, nor solely concerned with the activities of politicians. Politics exists in any context where there is a structure of power and struggle for power in an attempt to gain or maintain leadership positions. In this sense, one can speak about the politics of trade unions or about ‘university politics’. One can discus ‘sexual politics’, meaning the domination of men over women or the attempt to alter this relation. At present, there is much controversy about race politics with reference to the power, or lack or it, of people of different colour or race in various countries. In a narrower sense, however everything is politics, which affects our lives through the agency of those who exercise and control state power, and the purposes for which they use that control. In the lecture quoted above, Weber after initially giving a very broad definition of politics in terms of general leadership, went on to produce a far more limited definition: ‘We wish to understand by politics’, he wrote, ‘only the leadership, or the influencing of leadership, of a political association, hence today, of a state’. In this perspective, the state is the central political association. A political question is one that relates to the state, to the topic of who controls state power, for what purposes that power is used and with what consequences, and so on.

Piyush Chaudhary Feb 19 · Comments: 3 · Tags: ias
Piyush Chaudhary

Political theory is a theory about what is “political”, the science and philosophy of what is political. George Sabine says, “It is anything about politics or relevant to politics”. This being the broader meaning, he refers to its narrow meaning, saying that it is “the disciplined investigation of political problems” (A History of Political Theory, 1973). David Held defines political theory as “a network of concepts and generalizations about political life involving ideas, assumptions and statements about the nature, purpose and key features of government, state and society and about the political capabilities of human beings”. (Political Theory Today, 1991) A very elaborate definition of political theory has been given in Political Science Dictionary, describing it as “a body of thought that seeks to evaluate, explain and predict political phenomena. As a sub-field of Political Science, it is concerned with political ideas, values and concepts, and the explanation of prediction of political behaviour. In its broad sense, it has two main branches: one is political philosophy or normative theory, with its value, analytic, historical and speculative concerns. The other is empirical theory, with its efforts to explain, predict, guide, research and organize knowledge through the formulation of abstract models, and scientifically testable propositions.”

Political theory is all about politics. It is an overview of what the political order is about. It is a symbolic representation of what is “political”. In its nature, it is a formal, logical and systematic analysis of processes and consequences of political activity. It is, in its method, analytical, expository, and explanatory. It is, in its objective, an attempt to give order, coherence and meaning to what may be referred to as “political”.

Piyush Chaudhary Feb 19 · Rate: 4 · Comments: 2 · Tags: ias
Piyush Chaudhary

Nearly 40 Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) personnel were killed and many others injured when terrorists targeted a convoy with a car bomb at Awantipora in Jammu and Kashmir's Pulwama district today, in what is the worst attack ever on security personnel in the state. Reports suggested that the vehicle used by the terrorists was a Mahindra Scorpio carrying more than 350 kg of explosives. 

The injured have been moved to the army base hospital in Srinagar, 20 km from the attack site.  Pakistan-based terrorist group Jaish-e-Mohammed has claimed responsibility for the attack. 

Home Ministry sources said that terrorists triggered the car bomb while 78 vehicles with over 2,500 CRPF men were on the Srinagar-Jammu highway. The stretch on which the incident occurred had been sanitized earlier in the morning, and authorities have termed it as a "serious breach" of security.

Photographs showed charred remains of vehicles and human body parts littered across the highway, alongside blue military buses. Official sources said that the attack was carried out by one Adil Ahmad Dar alias "Waqas Commando". A resident of Kakapora, he had joined the terror outfit last year.

Condemning the attack, the government in a strongly-worded statement, demanded that "Pakistan stopped supporting terrorists and terror groups operating from their territory." The centre also appealed to the "international community to support the proposal to list terrorists, including Jaish-e-Mohammed Chief Masood Azhar, as a designated terrorist under the 1267 Sanctions Committee of the UN Security Council."

Piyush Chaudhary Feb 14 · Comments: 2 · Tags: pulwama attack
Piyush Chaudhary
88 years of capital of INDIA

- Delhi was inaugurated as the capital of british india by viceroy & governor general of India, Lord Irwin, on 13 feb, 1931.

Piyush Chaudhary Feb 13 · Rate: 5 · Comments: 1 · Tags: new delhi
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